Institute for Social and Economic Change

Working Paper: 456

Educational Development, and Household and Public
Expenditures on Education in Manipur

Reimeingam Marchang



The paper appraises the changing level, pattern and trend of educational development in conjunction with the consumption expenditure and the government expenditure on education post-1990, specifically for Manipur. Consumption expenditure and government expenditure on education and literacy and educational level have grown concurrently and significantly. Manipur continues to spend a larger proportion of consumption expenditure on education when compared to the country’s level, particularly in rural areas. As expected urban people continue to spend more on education than their rural counterparts in the State as in the country. Concurrently, literacy and educated rates were higher in the State than in the country. In Manipur, the public expenditure on education (revenue and capital accounts) has considerably declined in recent times despite educational development. Expenditure on education is mainly incurred from the revenue account. Educational expenditure, with respect to the GSDP, prevails below ten per cent and highly fluctuated till the mid-2000s presumably due to buoyant Manipur’s economy. The per capita educational expenditure has substantially increased due to inflation and that attributes to a costlier educational service. Spending on education must be increased to enhance educational enrolment and attainment and to improve earnings and economic condition of individuals and the economy.

Working Papers